Morse Code was invented in the United States by am American Artist and inventor Samuel F.B Morse during the 1830s for electrical telegraphy. Eventually improved by an American scientist and businessman Alfred Lewis Vail. Soon after the Morse Code was introduced to Europeans, it became apparent that the original Morse Code was inadequate for transmitting non-English text, since it lacked codes for letters with diacritic marks. A variant called the International Morse Code was invented within a conference of European Nations in 1851. This newer code is also called Continental Morse Code

Application for the public

An important application is signalling for help SOS, (• • • — — — • • •). Keying a radio on and off, flashing a mirror, toggling a flashlight, etc. SOS is not three separate characters, is keyed without gaps between characters.

Morse code is composed of five elements:

1. Short mark, dot or dit (•) is known as dot duration, is one time unit long

2. Longer mark, dash or dah (—) is three time units long

3. Inter-element gap between the dots and dashes within a character is consistent with one dot duration or one unit long

4. Short gap (between letters) is three time units long

5. Medium gap (between words) is seven time units long

Example using 0 as a gap unit, short gap "000" for between letters and medium gap "0000000" between words

— — 000 — — — 000 • — • 000 • • • 000 • 0000000 — • — • 000 — — — 000 — • • 000 •

Short without showing gap unit

———   —   —   •—•   ••• •       —•—•   ———   —••   •

American Morse Code

A: • —

B: — • • •

C: • •  •

D: — • •

E: •

F: • — •

G: — — •

H: • • • •

I: • •

J: — • — •

K: — • —

L: ——

M: — —

N: — •

O: •   •

P: • • • • •

Q: • • — •

R: •   • •

S: • • •

T: —

U: • • —

V: • • • —

W: • — —

X: • —   • •

Y: • •   • •

Z: • • •   •

International

Morse Code

A: • —

B: — • • •

C: — • — •

D: — • •

E: •

F: • • — •

G: — — •

H: • • • •

I: • •

J: • — — —

K: — • —

L: • — • •

M: — —

N: — •

O: — — —

P: • — — •

Q: — — • —

R: • —  •

S: • • •

T: —

U: • • —

V: • • • —

W: • — —

X: — • • —

Y: — • — —

Z: — — • •

Numeric

American

1: • —  — •

2: • • — • •

3: • • • — •

4: • • • • —

5:  — — — 

6: • • • • • •

7: — — • •

8: — • • • •

9: — • • —

0: ———

International

1: • — — — —

2: • • — — —

3: • • • — —

4: • • • • —

5: • • • • •

6: — • • • •

7: — — • • •

8: — — — • •

9: — — — — •

0: — — — — —